ransomware attack

Egregor Ransomware

Executive Summary

Since September 2020, Unit 42 researchers have observed Egregor affecting multiple industries globally, including those within the U.S, Europe, Asia Pacific and Latin America, following the decline in operations utilizing the Maze ransomware. Egregor operations mimic that of Maze operations, leading us to believe that although Maze operators announced a shutdown of the “Maze Team Project,” the operators behind those activities have simply developed a new ransomware to move their objectives forward.

Due to the surge in Egregor activity, we’ve created this general threat assessment for overall threat awareness. Full visualization of the techniques observed and their relevant courses of action can be viewed in the Unit 42 ATOM Viewer.

Malware Overview

Egregor is a variant of the Sekhmet family. It has been observed since at least September 2020, around the same time when Maze ransomware operators announced an intent to shut down their operations. Affiliates who utilized the Maze ransomware to conduct their activities now appear to have likely moved on to Egregor to avoid disrupting their operations.

Maze leveraged malware such as Trickbot, and Egregor has followed suit, using commodity malware such as Qakbot, IcedID and Ursnif for initial access. Ryuk ransomware also leveraged both Trickbot and BazaLoader in a similar fashion to gain initial access to a victim system.

After initial infection, scripts are used to modify victim firewalls and enable Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP). Cobalt Strike is used to conduct network reconnaissance, move laterally across the network, exfiltrate data and prepare for execution.

During our analysis, we observed a ZIP file containing a PowerShell script (Figure 1) that attempts to uninstall a endpoint agent. It then uses BITS to download the Egregor DLL from a malicious server and execute the payload using Rundll32.


Egregor uses multiple anti-analysis and evasion techniques, such as disabling a system’s antivirus software and heavily obfuscating the payload. Also, the payload can only be executed with a key using the expected command-line argument, in this case “-passegregor10”. When run on the victim’s system, Egregor changes the files’ extensions to a random set of characters. When the encryption of files is complete, the ransomware creates the ransom note file “RECOVER-FILES.txt” in all folders that contain encrypted files.